Covid-19 Vaccine Logistics and Distribution


Arav Wahi and Arya Gandhi



Covid-19 has been the topic to dominate the news cycle in 2020 and rightfully so. It caused virtually every country in the world to go into lockdown, and major economic crises for not only nations, but their citizens. So it is obviously great news to the millions of workers who have been impacted by Covid-19 now that there is a vaccine that can help the world return to normal. There have been many vaccines made for SARS-CoV-2 but not yet complete. In this article, there is an explanation of which vaccines have been approved in the United States of America, the European Union, and the United Kingdom


Currently, in the United States of America, 2 vaccines have been approved, the Pfizer + BioNTech Vaccine for ages 16 and up, and Moderna Vaccine for ages 18 and up. The Pfizer Vaccine has been approved in the EU and UK as well as the AstraZeneca Vaccine being approved for the UK. Other countries have approved one or more of the vaccines, but the EU, UK, and US are the only countries in focus for this article. 

General makeup


The vaccine is made up of messenger RNA. This RNA is made by humans and not from actual viruses. It is delivered in a lipid nanoparticle. These nanoparticles are in a saline solution and are injected into the upper arm. The vaccine works as if the body has been injected with the actual virus but instead it sends instructions to make the protein that fights against the real virus through the mRNA. Then the immune system is able to recognize it and forge and attack against it. Antibodies, B, and T cells are activated when this vaccine is injected, according to Uğur Şahin, a partner in making the vaccine with Pfizer. 


Distribution Logistics 

Frontline workers will be prioritised to receive the vaccine first, as they are working around the clock to keep the world as normal as it was despite a massive change due to public health crises. Some frontline workers such as healthcare workers, police officers, firefighters, education workers, grocery workers, etc. After frontline workers, people 65 and older are going to receive the vaccine due to their weakened immune system and higher mortality rates after Covid infections. Many in senior homes will be receiving the vaccine as at the beginning of the pandemic, they were the hotspots of the virus and the most fatal. Then, people aged 65-74 will receive the vaccine as they are also at high risk, but still not as much as the other citizens. 

After them, those 16-64 with preexisting conditions that could prove fatal if infected will receive the vaccine lowering their risk to the virus. Finally, the essential workers who are not as at risk as the first pair will receive the vaccine such as transportation workers, energy workers, and construction workers. The Pfizer Vaccine needs to be stored at the chilling temperature of -70° Celcius, which is colder than winter in Antarctica! The Moderna Vaccine only needs to be stored in temperatures of -20° C, which is similar to regular freezers. 


Unfortunately, the vaccine that can save the world from the deadliest pandemic in recent times has its share of flaws. Some side effects of both vaccines include pain and swelling in the injected spot, fatigue for long periods of time, headaches for long periods of time as well, chills, muscle pain causing strain all around the body, joint pain which can worsen arthritis, and Bell’s Palsy, which is a temporary weakness to the muscles in the face only found in the Pfizer Vaccine. 


In conclusion, the vaccine is nowhere from being perfect, but it shows promise, and as we see how it affects people while fighting off the virus, we will be able to improve it so it can be completely beneficial to humans without allowing the virus to survive and/or harm humans.